In recent years, the rate of myopia in children and adolescents in my country has remained high and rising, and myopia has become increasingly younger and more severe. The comprehensive prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents is a systematic project, a "tough battle" and a "protracted battle", requiring the joint efforts of the government, schools, medical and health institutions, families, and students.
"Videos" increase, movement decreases
More and more "small glasses"
“I often squint my eyes to see things, frequently blink, rub my eyes, frown, pull the corners of my eyes, and often tilt my head to look at objects... If the child has such a behavior, parents should take the child to the hospital for examination as soon as possible.” Soon after school starts in September , 130,000 elementary and middle school students in Xicheng District, Beijing received a booklet-"Workbook on Prevention and Control of Myopia for Students in Xicheng District."
During the prevention and control of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, large-scale online education and teaching have been carried out in universities, middle schools and primary schools across the country. This effectively compensates for the failure of normal school teaching, and inevitably increases the time of children and adolescents in front of electronic screens. After more than half a year, what changes have happened to the children's eyesight?
“The Ministry of Education has conducted investigations on the vision changes of primary, middle and high school students in 9 provinces, regions and municipalities during the epidemic, and the results of the investigation are not optimistic.” The head of the national comprehensive prevention and control of myopia experts in children and adolescents, the Ministry of Education, Health and Sports According to Wang Dengfeng, the director of the Department of Art Education, the incidence of poor eyesight among the surveyed students has risen from 59.2% to 70.6% in the past six months. Among them, the incidence of poor eyesight in primary school students is 61.6%, that of junior high school students is 80.3%, and the rate of high school students is poor vision. It was 89.3%.
The survey results show that on the one hand, there are more and more new "small glasses"; on the other hand, the degree of myopia students has also increased. 13.2% of students have worsening myopia and high myopia (myopia is higher than 600 degrees). ) The rate rose from 8.9% to 9.1%.
The longer the electronic product is used, the greater the possibility of myopia. During the home study period, the length of online classes increased significantly. According to the survey, before the epidemic, most of the students' online classes were to study in off-campus training institutions. During the epidemic prevention and control period, 80% of students took online classes every day, and 47.9% had online classes more than 2.5 hours a day.
Moreover, watching the "video" time of an electronic screen is more than just learning. Not going out for activities, many children and adolescents can not do without the large and small "screens" in their entertainment time and even their daily lives. According to the survey, during the epidemic prevention and control period, children and adolescents’ time spent playing games, watching videos, and leisure and entertainment has increased significantly. 38.3% of students spend more than 2.5 hours of “screening” for non-learning purposes each day, and 38.5% of students feel visual fatigue or dry eyes. .
In addition, the significant reduction in outdoor activities, the inconvenience of medical treatment during epidemic prevention and control, and the inadequate parental care and supervision have also contributed to the increase in the rate of myopia in children and adolescents.
Prevention first, combination of prevention and control
Strengthen prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents
Langxia Primary School in Jinshan District, Shanghai paid attention to myopia control during the epidemic prevention and control period, and achieved a good result of "the school's poor eyesight rate is 10% lower than the district's average poor eyesight rate".
Xu Xun, executive director of Shanghai Eye Disease Prevention and Control Center, introduced that children in Langxia Primary School are required to strictly observe correct sitting and reading and writing postures, rest their eyes after using them at close range for a long time, and insist on 3 hours a day, morning, noon, and evening. Accept natural light, etc., and accept parental supervision, and "check in" with the head teacher every day.
Facts have proved that only by taking effective measures can children and adolescents myopia be prevented and controlled. On August 30, 2018, the Ministry of Education and other eight departments jointly issued the "Implementation Plan for the Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Myopia in Children and Adolescents" to effectively strengthen the prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents in the new era.
In the two years since the "Implementation Plan" was issued, in accordance with the principle of prevention first, prevention and control combined, all parts of the country have strengthened organizational leadership, scientific overall planning, strengthened responsibility, innovated working methods, and precise strategies to steadily promote the comprehensive prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents. Work has made positive progress.
Shandong Province has established complete eye health files including ocular biological parameters from preschool age to monitor the reserve value of hyperopia. The province has established 3-5 municipal-level youth myopia prevention and control demonstration cities, 25-30 myopia prevention and control demonstration counties (districts), and 120 myopia prevention and control pilot schools to realize the education of students in demonstration cities, counties (districts) and schools. The visual screening rate is 100%, the archiving rate is 100%, and the myopia warning rate is 100%. In 2019, the myopia rate in Shandong Province decreased by 3.03% compared with 2018.
Sanming City, Fujian Province has incorporated the physical and mental health of children and adolescents, and the burden of schoolwork into the compulsory education quality monitoring and evaluation system. The school’s annual student overall myopia rate and new myopia rate are used as important indicators for the comprehensive selection and evaluation of schools and kindergartens.
The Jinniu District of Chengdu City, Sichuan Province issued the "Eye Health Project" Implementation Plan to improve the eye health files of the whole process of "collection-analysis-recommendation-re-examination-tracking". Up to now, 34 primary and middle schools in the district have established eye health files, more than 17,000 students have completed universal eye health files, and more than 5,700 students have completed deep eye health files including mydriasis detection and vision.
The reporter learned that Beijing, Shanghai, Zhejiang and many other provinces and cities have listed “achieving the goal of reducing the myopia rate of local children and adolescents” as a registered project of the “Pen for Endeavour” of the education system in 2020. Among them, in 24 elementary schools in 8 districts, Shanghai explored an intervention trial to increase the outdoor activity time of students to 2 hours a day, and the incidence of myopia dropped by nearly 30%.
Timely detection and timely intervention
Myopia prevention and control included in local government performance appraisal indicators
Physical exercise and outdoor activities play a very obvious role in preventing and controlling myopia in children and adolescents. According to a survey conducted by the Ministry of Education, during the epidemic prevention and control period, 27% of students were exposed to sunlight for less than 1 hour, and 63.7% of students were exposed to sunlight for less than 2 hours. The occurrence of myopia and the time of physical activities, the importance of physical activities, and the intensity of physical activities were significantly negative. Related.
"Outdoor activities are the most convenient and economical way to prevent myopia. Outdoor activities for more than one hour a day are very effective in preventing the appearance of myopia and its further development." Wang Dengfeng emphasized.
It is understood that the Ministry of Education has promoted local and schools to strictly implement 1 hour of intramural physical activities for students every day to ensure that physical education and health classes in the first and second grades of elementary school are 4 hours a week, 3 to 6 grades and junior high schools are 3 hours a week, and 2 in high school. During class hours, primary and secondary schools arrange 30 minutes of large break sports activities every day. At the same time, students should be guided and urged to take 1-2 hours of outdoor activities every day after school so that they can be exposed to outdoor natural light for more than 60 minutes at home.
Since the outbreak of the new crown pneumonia, the myopia rate of children and adolescents has fluctuated, and it has also been accompanied by an increase in the rate of undercorrected myopia. According to a survey conducted by the Ministry of Education, during the epidemic, children and adolescents were unable to detect and effectively correct myopia due to factors such as inconvenience in visiting a doctor. The proportion of myopic students in this survey who did not wear glasses was 48.4%. "In the next step, we should promptly detect and intervene in the screening, and urge timely medical treatment. In particular, we must pay attention to the occurrence and development of high myopia, and minimize the loss." Director of the Engineering Research Center for Myopia Prevention, Control, Diagnosis and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Wenzhou Professor Qu Jia of the Medical University pointed out.
In accordance with the requirements of the "Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Myopia in Children and Adolescents", strictly implement the student health examination system and the twice vision monitoring system every semester, remind and educate students with abnormal vision, and schools and medical and health institutions must timely monitor and screen vision The results are recorded in the electronic file of children and adolescents' vision health.
It is reported that my country has established a national assessment and assessment system for the prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents, and has included the prevention and control of myopia in children and adolescents, the overall myopia rate, and physical health in the government performance assessment. This is where the physical health of children and adolescents has declined for three consecutive years. The government and schools are held accountable in accordance with laws and regulations.